The Delphic Commandments

the Rock of the Sybil at Delphi
the Rock of the Sybil at Delphi

As part of my sabbatical devoted to writing How to Be a Stoic (the book, scheduled to be out for Basic Books in late April) I spent a few days in Greece with the primary intent of going after Epictetus. I visited Nicopolis, the Roman town where he went after he was exiled by Domitian in 93 CE. There he established his school and eventually died, probably around 135 CE, when he was about 80.

On my way to Nicopolis (modern day Preveza, in the Epirus region of northwestern Greece), I rented a car from Athens and drove the 370 or so kilometers with my friend Tunc, stopping at Delphi. I had been there before, but the place truly is magical, and was certainly worth a visit on our way to the Ionian coast.

While there, Tunc and I took in the gorgeous landscape surrounding the archeological site, visited the temple of Apollo and the one dedicated at Athena, walked by the remains of the Roman and Athenian Stoas, and looked with awe at the famous Charioteer statue inside the adjacent museum. Just to give you an example, here is an image I took of the temple of Athena:

Temple of Athena at Delphi

While there, I checked the famous Delphi “commandments,” or maxims, allegedly given to the Oracle by Apollo himself. Stobaeus tells us that they were actually uttered by the Seven Sages, a group of 6th century philosophers and mystics that included the famous legislator Solon of Athens, the politician Chilon of Sparta, and Thales of Miletus, the first person to whom we attach the label of “philosopher.” Modern scholars are more inclined to think that the Delphi maxims are a collection of ancient proverbs and sayings.

Whatever the origins, there are a number of pearls of wisdom among the 147 maxims (and some not so wise: “Rule your wife.” Really?). As an exercise in personal discovery, I read all 147 of them, picking the ones that particularly spoke to me. I invite you to do the same, but without lingering too much on each entry, just highlight those that resonate with you at first glance. You may be surprised at what the final list will look like, or at the least at some of its entries.

At the cost of a bit of narcissism, here is my own roll of 22 (in order of appearance in the Wiki entry):

Ηττω υπο δικαιου = Be overcome by justice

Σαυτον γνωθι = Know yourself

Φρονει θνητα = Think as a mortal

Αρχε σεαυτου = Control yourself

Θυμου κρατει = Control anger

Σοφιαν ζηλου = Long for wisdom

Ψεγε μηδενα = Find fault with no one

Επαινει αρετην = Praise virtue

Φιλοις ευνοει = Be kind to friends

Ευγενειαν ασκει = Exercise nobility of character

Μηδεν αγαν = Nothing to excess

Χρονου φειδου = Use time sparingly

Πασιν αρμοζου = Be accommodating in everything

Τυχην νομιζε = Recognize fortune

Φιλοφρονει πασιν = Deal kindly with everyone

Ευγνωμων γινου = Be grateful

Γηρας προσδεχου = Accept old age

Πλουτει δικιως = Acquire wealth justly

Μανθανων μη καμνε = Do not tire of learning

Νεωτερον διδασκε = Teach a youngster

Σεαυτον αιδου = Respect yourself

Τελευτων αλυπος = On reaching the end be without sorrow

15 thoughts on “The Delphic Commandments

  1. Here’s my unedited list also in order of appearance:

    Be overcome by justice
    Think as a mortal
    Find fault with no one
    Be impartial
    Speak well of everyone
    Down-look no one
    Speak plainly
    Keep yourself from insolence
    Pursue harmony
    Accept old age
    Respect yourself

    Looking at it now, I think I was reading both “find fault with no one” and “speak well of everyone” not as absolutes but more along the lines of “don’t find only fault with someone/others”.


  2. I’m still having trouble with my choices so I’m dropping ‘Find fault with no one’ and ‘Speak well of everyone’ and replacing them with ‘Deal kindly with everyone’.

    I’m surprised I missed that when I read the list.


  3. If they’re “Delphic,” can they really be understood?🙂

    More seriously, “Recognize fortune” would be on my list for sure. Surprised you didn’t also have the paired maxim, which would also be on my list, even more so, of “Do not trust fortune.” Gnothi seauton is of course quasi-universal among classic philosophy. “Fear deceit” would also be on my list. I’m not necessarily the most trusting soul, by both nature and nurture, and don’t mind being honest about it.

    With that, “make promises to no one” would be there, not just for a trust issue, but per Jesus’ “Let your ‘yes’ be ‘yes’ … ” If I am to be trusted, my word, without “promises” or “oaths,” must stand by itself.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Massimo,

    If you will permit me to say so, the correct translation from the ancient Greek of the Delphic Maxim, “γυναικώς άρχε,” is not “rule your wife”. The word used there is “άρχε” which is not “rule” but rather “lead” but not in the way we think of as in leading a donkey. More like “guide” or “lead” as in “lead the conversation” or “lead the meeting”. The term is ancient Greek and means ” lead, or be an example of leadership, virtue and guidance to your wife, showing her the correct way or path to live.” It’s all about leading a life of correct virtue, about guidance, and not about ruling.

    In those days, the man was in and of the world and the woman, while she ruled the home, was far less exposed to the ways of the world, so his duty was to give her virtuous guidance.

    The word “rule” or “control” in ancient Greek is “κυριαρχώ.” While it has the same root “άρχω” but the prefix κυρι +αρχώ gives the term its meaning, which is a direct imperative to rule. κύριος means “sir” or “master,” and when used as a prefix implies ruling or being a master. In fact, that very word,”κυριαρχώ” is the exact imperative used in the Delphic Maxims, and it means, literally, “rule or master oneself”. Why didn’t they use the exact same word when referring to one’s wife, if that’s what they meant?

    There are more mistranslations on Wikepedia.

    Maxim #14 uses the same word, άρχε. but the meaning is not, as Wikepedia says, “Control Yourself” it is rather “Guide, or Lead Yourself”. There is a difference.

    Maxim #16 does not use the same word, άρχε, and the meaning is not “Control Your Anger” it is rather “Hold, or Keep Your Anger with Measure.” Again, there is a difference.

    I haven’t checked the other translations from Wikipedia, but I am duly skeptical that whoever translated the Maxims for Wikipedia reads ancient Greek or understands the nuances of it given that they print different Greek words and sometimes use the same incorrect definition and at other times they use a different incorrect definition. This is the problem with using crowd-sourced references like Wikipedia. They are not always reliable.

    Moreover, considering these maxims were from the Seven Sages, known to be among the wisest men of the ancient world, it doesn’t make any sense to have one maxim say “Rule Your Wife” and yet have all the rest be unified under a consistent theme of virtue, fairness, politeness, harmony, eudemonia.

    Finally, you will notice that the second to the last command is translated from the ancient Greek as “Never Rule (or give orders to) Anyone.” Since the Seven Sages would never have one maxim conflict with another, this would, by definition, exclude “Rule Your Wife” as a possibility.

    My wife, whom, incidentally, I don’t rule, graduated as Professor of Ancient Greek Philology from the University of Athens and she has translated these maxims for me directly from the ancient Greek so we could study them together.

    When we were in Delphi last year, we recited them aloud, in ancient Greek and in English, in unison, at the Temple of Apollo in Delphi, in full and complete acknowledgement of their importance and their bearing on a virtuous life led, not ruled, toward the achievement of ευδεμονια.

    I hope this clears things up a bit.

    Best Regards,


    Liked by 1 person

  5. PS: I should also point out that the title of the Delphic Maxims is “παραγγέλματα” which means, literally, “messages”. παρά αγγέλω is the word broken down, the root of this is the verb, αγγέλω, which means “messages” from which comes the word, αγγελος which means “angels” or more appropriately, “messengers” as angels are literally messengers from God. They are not really “maxims” or “rules” but rather “messages” or “suggestions” for consideration upon endeavoring to lead an examined life.


  6. Pericles,

    Thanks so much for your corrections, appreciated. To be fair, I doubt the Wiki author(s) did the translations themselves, more likely they got them from a hodgepodge of sources. But it’s certainly better to have someone who knows the language!

    I’m particularly glad about your elucidation of the bit about dominating one’s wife. It still doesn’t make ancient Greco-Roman societies a pinnacle of feminism, but that would be expecting far too much…

    On one thing, however, I disagree with: you suggest that there couldn’t be internal inconsistencies because the Seven Sages would have seen to that. But modern scholarship seems to agree that the Delphic maxims are actually a collection of popular sayings, some but likely not all of which came from the Sages. And even if they all did, it is hard to imagine that they would have sat together to hammer out their differences. So I’m okay with the occasional inconsistency, so long as it results from an accurate translation!


  7. Besides all that, accents are missing in the Greek texts offered by Wikipedia.

    I’d like to add a new maxim (or message): “Do not trust crowd-sourced information”.


  8. Massimo,

    In the ancient papyruses, those most commonly known as the Seven Sages actually elaborated on the 147 messages they compiled. And they did, in fact, convene in Delphi to compile these messages. That much is known and is written in the ancient papyri. In fact, I believe that I read or was told by someone who read it that they lived in the residences in Delphi while this meeting of the minds convened.

    Some modern scholars, without any evidence, mind you, and probably without a full mastery of ancient Greek sufficient to read the actual papyri, have theorized that these messages may not actually be from the Seven Sages but are merely a gathered compilation of historically-revered axioms or truths through Greek ancient history. This is a specious claim as there were frequently sages in residence at Delphi along with the Oracle and her attendants.

    But, whether the messages are from the Seven Sages or not, what is clear is that that all of the messages have a consistency of virtue about them, directly in line with the ideal goal of all Greek philosophy: the achievement of Eudemonia.

    In that context, “ruling” over anything would be such a base desire, so as not to qualify as a message or axiom to live by.

    Whatever “modern scholarship” seems to agree on, it has certainly been proven wrong frequently, either by ignoring the true semantic meaning of the original Greek or sometimes through the advent of new archeological discoveries which disproved earlier theories, so any appeal to authority, in my view, suggests a logical fallacy.

    Some cases in point, which are no means exhaustive, are:

    1.) The existence of Troy as recorded by Homer. Scholars called Troy and the Trojan Wars a “myth” until the actual ruins of Troy were discovered.

    2.) The existence of Odysseus and his palace in Ithaca, in the Ionian Islands, as recorded by Homer. Again, scholars called the story of Odysseus and his palace a “myth” until the actual ruins of is palace were found:

    3.) The common myth that ancient Greeks embraced homosexuality, which is not true. In fact, a perfunctory reading of the papyri shows laws against homosexuality in ancient Greece with severe punishments including banishment and death. The case of Plato’s narrative which says the Greek governing body called for the death sentence of Socrates on the trumped-up charges of pederasty– which was, according to Plato, a crime punishable by death–is the most glaring historical evidence against such foolish theory, whether one believes Socrates existed or not.

    Another thing for certain: pursuit of Eudemonia was the highest and noblest goal of the ancient Greek. Combined with the important nuances gained through determination of the original semantical meaning of the ancient Greek and maintaining close fidelity to the ancient papyri, it becomes much clearer that Eudemonia is the overarching theme of the Delphic Maxims too.


  9. I submit to you that whoever said that the 147 Delphic Maxims could simply be a “collection of popular sayings” has never actually read the ancient writings of the Greek philosophers in the original ancient Greek from the papyrus, scholar or no scholar, modern or not.

    There is no other logical conclusion one could make. In Socratic style, let them show evidence for these specious claims and thereby meet their burden of proof. I will submit that they don’t have any evidence for such a claim, which is in itself evidence of their claim being a bold but veiled assertion that all the ancient philosophers and scholars are lying.

    But why would they lie, and have they ever lied before?

    Every single Greek philosopher of any importance has stated very clearly in his (or her) writing since around 600 BC or so that these 147 messages come directly from the Seven Sages and that they were envisioned and summoned by the Oracles. The Oracles, it is written, took the order from the gods that these messages needed to be presented to the people in the form of a list in a place where everyone of importance could see it. Then, it is written, they summoned the wise sages to Delphi to author and produce that list. Even the sages themselves wrote about it contemporaneously. There has been nothing written to suggest that these pearls of wisdom were somehow a collection of “folk sayings” or “popular but anonymous sayings” passed down through some oral tradition over thousands or even hundreds of years. No. There is no evidence of that.

    Furthermore, nothing that the ancient philosophers have said has ever been proven untrue. They always speak the truth.

    In stark contrast, “modern scholars” don’t. More and more of the silly things that “the majority of modern scholars” have theorized to be true about the ancient Greeks and their writings are being proven untrue daily as history reveals itself in direct and glaring opposition to those theories.

    The Seven Sages were named by Plato and others, and known to be the following:

    Θαλή το Μιλήσιο
    Πιττακό το Μυτιληναίο
    Βίαντα τον Πρηνέα
    Σόλωνα τον Αθηναίο
    Κλεόβουλο το Ρόδιο
    Περίανδρο τον Κορίνθιο
    Χίλωνα το Λακεδαιμόνιο

    All of these men were 6th Century BC contemporaries and as the written papyrus states, they were summoned by the Oracles to Delphi to convene over these axioms.

    Who exactly are the as yet unnamed “modern scholars” who claim otherwise? More Wikipedia “scholars” who don’t read (or accurately write) Greek?
    I am curious to know who they are and what their basis for making such claims is. I doubt that they have one.

    I also wanted to highlight another common misconception about ancient Greece and underscore it a bit further, since some “modern scholars” still insist that ancient Greece was not exactly a liberating place for women.
    I will show that to be a false hypothesis.


    There are many well-documented ancient Greek examples of matriarchy in literature, theology and mythology. The first prominent elevation of females to a level of importance and female equality or superiority begins with the establishment of Mother Gaia to the elevated position of earth-mother-godhead. No matriarchy which idealizes women is complete without the recognition of a female, mothering, nurturing God.
    The next example of reverence and elevation of women can be found in the female forms of powerful deities so well known in Greek theology and mythology. In Greek mythology a goddess was just as important as a god – sometimes more so. The Greek goddesses covered everything from fertility to death and from poetry to war. There are 66 such deities if we count influential muses, playful nymphs, Pleiades, and Naiads, and the importance of such feminine presence in the Greek hierarchical order of things cannot be overemphasized. Athens, after all is named for Athena, the goddess of war and wisdom and the largest temple on the acropolis was devoted to her, where a massive gold statue was erected in her honor. One would logically assume that if a society subjugated women, feminine deities would take a back seat to male ones. This was clearly not the case in ancient Greece.

    One can also not ignore the elevation of women to the role of priestesses and oracles in ancient Greece. Such powerful women who controlled the highest temples and influenced the highest decisions of kings and generals with their commands and their predictions, could easily mobilize entire armies and cities and strike fear in the hearts of the bravest generals. Why would the gods speak through a woman and empower her with divine vision if it was really true that women held a lower place in Greek society?

    Socially and politically, the equality of women is further exemplified in ancient Greek Minoan, Mycenaean, Spartan, and even Athenian societies, all of which were particularly known as city-states in which women had broad rights and power.

    Taking it even further, Crete, Sparta, Arcadia, Xios, Rhodes, Thessaly, Epirus, and Macedonia were all matriarchic societies where women had even more expanded political and social powers. There is plenty of written as well as anecdotal evidence to that point.

    Greek rights of individuals were also, very importantly, not statutory but rather based on natural rights, understood as being established by the Creator of the Universe, Agnostos Theos ( Ἄγνωστος Θεός”) who presided over the gods. As such, these rights were not subject to the whims of ordinary mortals, nor could they be changed. Everyone knew what they were and they were equal for everyone. Of course everyone, including women, must have equal rights when those rights are derived from nature’s laws set in place by the Creator of the Universe and supremely evident in nature. After all, female and male lions, cats, birds, or dogs, do not enjoy separate, unequal privileges in the state of nature.

    Some evidence of equal rights of women in ancient Greece:
    If a couple divorced in ancient Sparta, Athens and some other city-states, the man was obligated to find the woman a new husband, and not just any husband, but one that she actually liked. He could not finish his husband-finding mission until she was satisfied with her new match! She was the one who decided. He could bring her twenty suitable men and she could say she didn’t like any of them!
    In all the city-states, young girls were obligated to learn writing, reading, lyric drama, epic poetry, hymns, singing, musical instruments, and dancing up until they were 12 years old. After the age of 12 they had to learn economics, how to manage a household, how to make clothing, interior decoration and design, and music up until age 20. After that, there was family life, but there was also private tutoring or the Academy, and all the academies were happy to accept female students in all courses of study.

    Another example of the elevated societal status of women in ancient Greece is burial rituals, observational remembrances and status of the dead.
    In a tomb in ancient Mycenae, near the bronze-age citadel of Agamemnon, predating him and the Trojan Wars by centuries, is the grave of a brother and sister. What is unique is that a team of researchers testing ancient DNA from a high status, male-dominated cemetery at Mycenae in Greece believe they have identified this brother and sister buried together in a richly endowed grave, suggesting that she had just as much power as he did. While we don’t know exactly who she is, we can surmise that she may have been a forebear to the Electra of legend, who seems to have been such a powerful woman that the later stories tell how she was forced to marry a peasant just to dilute her vast and powerful influence.

    In the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, there is a gravestone, or “epitimvio stele”, on which is inscribed the name:

    ΑΘΗΝΑΪΣ ΘΕΟΦΙΛΟΥ ΚΕΚΡΟΠΟΣ (Athinais Theophilou Kekropos)

    Also inscribed on that ancient tombstone is the following epitaph:

    “The whole world of Athens cried for me, for my youth, my ethos, my virtue, but mostly because I was taking so much care and attention for my education and wisdom. The tears could not stop flowing from my father’s eyes, who lost the joy of his life and also the loving hands that would have been next to him taking care of him in his old age. My age at the time of death: 20 years old.”

    Athinais Theophilou Kekropos was a young woman who must have been well known in her community. Educated, virtuous and wise, mourned by all of Athens, she was commemorated in death forever, set in stone, like a hero. What ancient society that purportedly subjugated women would ever tolerate such a tribute to a young woman?

    Then there’s Sparta. Unquestionably, the highest position for women in Greek society was in Spartan culture. There they had financial power and influence upon every aspect of Spartan life. They were never afraid to speak in public and in some cases they forced their husbands to publicly accept their ideas. In Sparta, boys and girls were given equal education and physical training, and men and women were equal in knowledge, schooling, philosophical training, mathematics, physics, astrophysics, participation in Olympic Games, etc.

    Even Plato wrote about the wonderful extent of the Spartan women’s education in rhetoric, philosophy, mathematics, and science. And then there were the Spartan athletics. Women trained just as hard as the men, and young boys and girls were put together, naked, to train. Why? So they wouldn’t establish shame, taboos or perversions, have scandalous ideas, desires, curiosities, stigmas, or guilt later in life. So that human sexuality would be developed naturally and not be the domain of the rumors or unhealthy fantasies that cause psychological weaknesses. Again, women were equal to men, if not in brute strength, at least on the common playing field of athletics.

    Ancient Spartan law even specified that women would not be married until they were at the appropriate age for them to enjoy Eros. That means that they wanted the woman to be ready both physically and psychologically, otherwise, they reasoned, a man having sex with a younger girl might become a violent and unpleasant or traumatic act, more like a rape than the mutual pleasure and nurturing experience that a sexual experience with one’s husband should be. We only have to witness the horror accounts of modern child brides in India, Afghanistan and Pakistan to know how wrong that situation can go.

    Because the Spartan men were dedicated only to the martial arts and war, the women, children and the elderly ran the entire Spartan society, including properties, livestock, farming, bakeries, family wealth, trade, EVERYTHING. In Sparta, Men were dependent upon the women for everything. What is that if not an example of feminist laws and practices and the societal importance of women?

    Aristotle wrote that the Spartans are ruled by their wives (contrary to that bad Wikipedia translation of the Delphic Maxim we discussed earlier which says just the opposite).

    In the ancient papyri it is also written that once, an Athenian woman asked Leonidas’ wife, Gorgo why it was that Sparta was the only city-state in Greece where the women ruled the men.

    Her answer was a simple and well-known one:

    “Because Spartan women are the only women in Greece who give birth to MEN!”

    Think about it for a moment:

    The Spartans, by far the strongest, cleverest, the most powerful, best trained men; fierce warriors, who gave fear to all other men in Greece and all foreign enemies…and they…were ruled by women?

    That in itself is quite a statement for feminism.

    Then, there is of course the famous phrase in ancient Sparta which everyone knows to this day:


    It means, literally “You either come home WITH your shield (in hand as a victor of war) or ON your shield (being carried by pallbearers, atop your shield).”

    This phrase was told by the WOMEN of Sparta to their men departing for battle.

    The meaning was clear: “Don’t come home alive unless you are a victor.”

    This was an order!

    What society that subjugates and holds women in lower regard than men would permit such bossiness?

    In a society that appreciates and acknowledges women, there are always special women who reach high levels of admiration and personal achievement within that society.

    In ancient Greece, there are many such examples of women who became well-known philosophers, scholars, scientists. mathematicians, doctors, astrophysicists, and astronomers—thought leaders of the ancient world.

    The list of women named below were held in even higher esteem than the majority of male citizens in ancient Greece, due to their high status as educated and wise members of the society. This is by no means an exhaustive list.

    They represent a vast geographical cross-section of ancient Greece, from North to the South, from the Islands to the mainland. All of them studied, some privately with tutors, and some at the Academy, alongside men. Some even taught and became principals in the academies and all of them contributed greatly to the wealth of ancient literature, education, science, mathematics, philosophy, art, and music that we know as classical Greek today.

    Δαμώ •Damo/Philosopher and educator
    Ιππαρχία – Mathematician who was held in just as high esteem as Pythagoras
    Diotima/Philosopher, prophet, and priestess
    Hippo/Philosopher and Martyr
    Perictyone/Writer and Philosopher
    Korinna of Tanagra/Lyric Poet
    Praxilla/Lyric poet and composer
    Sappho/Poet and lyricist

    If all of these women were admitted to the academies of Plato, Pythagoras, Homer, et. al., and some of them even became teachers and principals of schools, who were sought after all over Greece, what does that show, if not a perfect example of feminism and equality, since the highest levels of learning were open to women in ancient Greece?

    In stark contrast, under Emperor Justinian, the Romans CLOSED the academies and forbade women from attending.

    Finally, in one last example of the elevated status of women in ancient Greece, even Aspasia from Miletus, the mistress, consort and later wife of my namesake Pericles, famed head of Greek government during the golden age of Greece, was highly sought after and influential in Athenian government and society. Aspasia lived from 470 BCE to 410 BCE and she was attacked for unduly influencing Pericles. Due to jealousy surrounding and mistrust by some because she had Pericles’ ear and wasn’t Athenian, some accounts from that time try to imply she was a prostitute, but this was simply not true. She came from a very high noble family and was given private education from an early age. She was known to be so wise that many leaders, even Socrates, came to speak with her and sought her wisdom and advice.

    Just because today’s historians and scholars hide, fail to discover or even blatantly ignore the evidence of history–perhaps because for centuries the leaders of Christianity and Judaism and the Orthodox and Catholic Churches found it more convenient for everything to be about males and paternalism–that doesn’t mean that the ancient Greeks did not hold women in the highest esteem and view women as equals. In fact, the writings of the ancients supporting the fact that they did hold women as equals is well-documented, as evidenced by the facts cited above. It proves that they did view women as equals much more so than those prior to them or even those after them, right up until modern times.

    Ancient Greece is speaking to us if only we choose to remove the wax from our ears and listen to her instead of the hearsay passed as fact by some modern scholars.

    (I would like to cite the excellent research of Terry Brown, Keri Brown, John Prag and Richard Neave, of the University of Manchester, on how the ancient graves at Mycenae revealed the nature of women’s power in ancient Greece:


  10. Erm, we’ve gotten a bit off topic, but modern scholarship has quite clearly shown that Homer, for example, underwent later recension with a fair amount of addition. I’m academically familiar with historical-critical scholarship of biblical literature and am comfortable with the findings of parallel scholars in the classical world.

    Liked by 1 person

  11. Pericles,

    i appreciate your passion and the amount of work you put into this. But please consider that this is a blog for the general public, where I expect the discussion thread to be used for conversation, not for posts that are longer than the original one. Cheers.


  12. Dear Massimo, dear all,

    It is common that words from Ancient Greek texts are translated with “variable” meanings into modern Greek, no less into the English language. The fortunate variety of modern Greek words to express and convey the meaning of the old texts seems to be both a “a blessing and a curse”.

    Being only an amateur philosophy lover, I would humbly like to address this short message in this fascinating blog regarding the “commandment” mentioned above “rule you wife”. Through my readings I found a description of this commandment that I believe conveys its exact spirit viewed through the cultural, sociological and philosophical “trends” of the time: “assume a pleasant but firm strong/soldier-like personality as well as wise/parent-like alpha male personality that ‘comforts’ with confidence and wisdom, wisdom that comes with age and experience)(Philosophers in antiquity usually suggested for a man to be in late thirties and a woman to be 18-19 age-wise)”

    On the matter please also find a very interesting paper I found here:

    Best to you dearest Massimo and to all from the city of Socrates!



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